Two Thieves, a Middleman, and Some People at the Waffle Café

Jesus Carrying the Cross, oil on canvas by Lorenzo Lotto, 1526TWO THIEVES, A MIDDLEMAN, AND SOME PEOPLE AT THE WAFFLE CAFÉ

________________________________________________________________

A Play in Two Acts
by
a blogger whose blog got a little out of hand

Copyright © 2016                                       

Cast of Characters

Middleman: A physically beaten, scantly dressed man in his early thirties, also known as Jesus of Nazareth and King of the Jews.
Thief 1: A contemporary man or woman.
Thief 2: A contemporary man or woman.
Narrator: A professional who might be confused with an FBI agent.
Dad: A contemporary man in his late thirties or early forties.
Son: A contemporary boy between the age of 13 and 16.
Seminary Student 1: A contemporary young adult.
Seminary Student 2: A contemporary young adult.
Wife: A contemporary woman about same age as husband.
Husband: A contemporary man about same age as wife.
Unseen Voice: A man or woman.

Scene

An imaginary hillside and an all-night cafe.

Time

From around 30 A.D. to present day.

ACT I

Scene 1

SETTING: An empty stage with the curtain partially open and the theatre of your own imagination.

AT RISE: Thief 1, dressed in contemporary fashion, stands at either side of stage in front of curtain grasping an imaginary object over right shoulder. He or she looks intently at one person in the audience, then another, ready to address the audience.

THIEF 1

(Voice changes as monologue progresses from inviting to firm with a slightly cruel edge.)

Go to an execution with me. It’s not a choice! You have to go! Oh? No. You have it all wrong. You’re not a spectator, and neither am I. Climb!

(Makes inviting gesture then labored climbing motion with both hands still on shoulder as if dragging a heavy object from behind across stage.)

You have to climb! You want to know where you’re headed don’t you? Up the steps to the guillotine … the gallows? … To the shooting post? … To the gas chamber? … Maybe you think you’re climbing onto the lethal injection bed? No. It won’t be that easy. … It’s a hill. You’re climbing a hill. Feel the heat of the sun on your back and the dust in your eyes?

(Stops climbing and points toward imaginary scenery.)

See the gray-white dirt and those clumps of grass. The rocks take on a soft yellow glow in this light don’t they?

(Continues climbing motion as he/she progresses across stage talking to the audience.)

I wish you could see your own face. It has a strained, haggard, and frightened look about it. The stress you’re feeling is not just because of the horror you’ve already endured, or the dust, or the hard climbing, or the heaviness you’re dragging is it? If you’re like me, the dreadful foreboding of the vile things you expect to come far outweigh everything else.

(Directs audience to look toward back of theatre.)

Go ahead. Look behind you. You may as well know what is in store for you.

(Thief 2, dressed like audience member, enters back of theatre, struggling to drag heavy cross as he/she moans under its load. Meanwhile, Thief 1 has progressed all the way across the stage. Thief 1 wipes forehead with one hand and slings off imaginary perspiration.)

What? Surprised? Are you thinking, “This can’t be happening; it’s not real?” Well. Get used to it. It’s real. It’s happeningIt’s not just us thieves you know. See that guy with us?

(Uses head and eye movement to suggest that someone is behind the curtain. Addresses audience with weakened voice.)

Trust me. It’s not an animal; its a man. It is hard to tell with all the blood and mangled skin. He’s been tortured. He’s barely alive.

(Thief 2 is on stage now and disappears behind curtain with Thief 1. Curtain closes to sounds of hammers, agonizing screams, jeering crowd noises, clashing of metal armor, and the thumps of three heavy posts sinking into dry ground.)

Magyar: Golgota, Oil on canvas, By Balázs János 1923 [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Scene 2

SETTING: A triple crucifixion set in front of mirrors positioned to reflect audience.

AT RISE: From left to right: Thief 1, Middleman, and Thief 2 hang on crosses. Thief 1 and Thief 2 are dressed as before in contemporary clothes. Middleman is almost nude, and his head is crowned with a ring of thorns. His head and body appear to be badly mangled and is covered in what looks like blood.

NARRATOR

(Walks on stage in profession apparel. Spotlight brings Narrator into focus as he begins narration in emotionally distanced, straightforward tone as if in a professional briefing.)

I will provide a brief explanation of Scene 2. The two thieves hanging on either side,

(Pointing to Thief 1 then to Thief 2, who silently portray agony mixed with sneering outrage directed toward Middleman.)

along with the rowdy crowd, have been voraciously berating the Middleman.

(Pointing to Middleman.)

with contemptuous insults. The sign,

(Points to sign nailed over middleman’s head which reads, “King of the Jews”.)

which of course is meant to be a cruel joke, identifies this man as, “the King of Israel.” People in the crowd knew the sign was a joke and, carrying on the joke, they mockingly referred to the claims Jesus had made about himself.

(Changes voice with each new line break to impersonate jeering voices of various scoffers who are imagined to be present at the crucifixion.)


Some of the religious rulers who were there said, “He saved others, let him save himself if he really is the Christ – God’s Chosen One.”
“He’s the King of Israel; let him come down from the cross now and we will believe in him.”
“He trusts in God; let God deliver him now if he wants to. After all he said, ‘I am the Son of God.'”
The soldiers said things like, “You say you’re the King of Israel. If you are come down now from the cross, and save yourself.”
Thief 1 and Thief 2,

(Pointing to both Thief 1 and 2.)

along with some people passing by, made fun of Jesus by saying things like, “You said you would destroy the temple and rebuild it in three days. So, if you can do that, why not save yourself?”
“If you are really the Son of God, come down from the cross.”
But then something in this man

(Points to Thief 2.)

changed.

(Turns back to audience.)

Somehow he was flung from the fiction he had just moments earlier perceived to be reality to inescapable truth. Listen.

(Spotlight focuses away from Narrator and on crucifixion. Thief 1 continues to silently portray agony mixed with sneering outrage.)

THIEF 1

“Are you the Christ or not? Save yourself! Save us!”

THIEF 2

(With sincere gravity speaking to Thief 1.)

We’re all under the same sentence of condemnation, but you are a thief. So am I. Don’t you fear God? You and I were condemned justly. We are getting the punishment we deserve; but this man, this man, suffering between us, hasn’t done anything wrong.

(Turning face ashamedly toward Middleman and speaking to him in a soft, sincere voice.)

Will you remember me when you enter your kingdom?

MIDDLEMAN

I promise you, today you will be with me in Paradise.

NARRATOR

(Turning toward audience giving a quick parenthetical explanation.)

That is to say, Jesus promised to be with that thief in future bliss by which he meant a future with God which cannot be anything but blissfully happy for those who are brought to God through their connection with Jesus. You may laugh at this and think it absurd but, thief though you be, your heart knows the truth of this unrecognized world even if, for days and days on earth, you manage to obscure it.

(Speaking more deliberately.)

For you see, Jesus really is God, the eternal King of the universe. He, alone, hangs as the portal between earth and heaven – between man and God. 

(Lights dim, spotlight moves to Jesus.)

MIDDLEMAN

(Crying out in a loud voice.)

Father into you hands I commit my spirit!

(Middleman breathes his last breath and dies accompanied by loud earthquake-like sounds emanating from orchestra as stage darkens and curtain closes.)

UNSEEN VOICE

(Heard on curtain close.)

The play ends. People stand and clap but are not sure that they should. Actors bow, unsure that they should either. Most people grab a late night snack even through they feel weird about it, but … life must go on.

waffle_house_restaurant (A place where you can talk about the Middleman)

ACT 2

Scene 1

SETTING: Three booths and a jukebox at a breakfast café.

AT RISE: One table is seated with a Husband and Wife involved in conversation. The second table is seated with two seminary students who are obviously studying for a test. Food has already been served. Spotlight is on Dad and Son who are engaged in thoughtful conversation at the third table.

DAD

(Spreading butter on a waffle, looking inquisitively at Son.)

Well? What’d you think of the play?

SON

(Looks thoughtfully at Dad after he has dripped syrup in a circular ring around the waffle.)

It was okay. I guess I just don’t understand the point.

DAD

What do you mean?

SON

Well, that thief, you know, the one that changed his mind and wanted to be with Jesus? He seemed sorry. He believed Jesus was God. Couldn’t God just forgive him? Why did Jesus have to die?

DAD

(Thoughtfully sets down a cup of coffee, grabs Son’s waffle plate and takes a big bite; Son looks outraged. Dad holds tightly to the waffle plate as Son tries unsuccessfully to take plate back. Son’s face maintains a look of annoyance and anger.)

What? Upset that I took a bite of your waffle? Feeling a little wrathful – a little angry that I did something unjust to you? Your face tells me that you think I deserve some kind of punishment? You want pay back?

(Dad pushes his own uneaten waffle back to Son.)

Here you go. Justice served. Feel better now?

SON

I guess.

DAD

Here’s the lesson and the beginning of the answer to your question. God is completely righteous. That means that his motives are always completely right. We act out of self-centered motives and flawed principles, but God’s own reasons for why he does what he does are never wrong. So, his justice is the perfect expression of his righteousness.

SON

What does my waffle and God’s righteousness have to do with my question about the cross?

DAD

I’m getting to that. Just hang with me for a second. Some people would say that what is right for God or you, is not what is right for me. Heard something like that before?

SON

Yeah. I hear that all the time.

DAD

Me too. But everybody can’t be right.

SON

I guess saying that I’m right and you’re right too would keep people from arguing though?

DAD

And THINKING. Logically, there has to be an ultimate rightness.

SON

My teacher says, “Two contradictory things can’t be true in the same way at the same time.”

DAD

Exactly. So, before we talk about the cross, let’s start with why God’s righteousness is right. Think about it like this: God is an author and everything else is his story. As Creator, God is the AUTHOR of the story – the Author of reality. He created the characters and prompts and backdrop of the story, so he has the AUTHOR-ity to say what is right.

SON

So what God says is right – is right because he is the one that created everything – even rightness.

DAD

Yes, and what’s more, you can trust that God’s principles and motives are right because the author’s character is good. God’s moral character is completely righteous. You can see God’s righteous standards and God’s righteous character in his acts of justice throughout biblical history – the prophets’ writings are a good example.

SON

Okay, but what about all the injustice? It’s in that story too.

DAD

That’s the point where we can talk about the cross. God promises that, ultimately, he will make sure that EVERY BITE of justice is served. Justice wins, either on the cross, for those who repent and believe, or through eternal punishment for those who don’t. God feels wrath and requires justice for every degree of every injustice just like you did a minute ago,

(Laughing.)

you know, before your wrath was appeased by the sacrifice of my waffle. Only God feels the sting of injustice more than you because of who God is. He created everything and sustains everything so he feels injustice in a way that only the Creator could feel. And because he is eternal and all knowing, he knows the depth of sin, and the total effects of it. The injustice of all unpunished sin stands ever before his holy and righteous face crying out for justice.

SON

Take a breath Dad.

DAD

Ha. Okay that was a little intense, but really I don’t think we can fathom the intense offense God must feel at all the unpunished sin that continuously cries out for just punishment. Imagine how much more wrath you would have justly felt if I had eaten all of your waffle and mine too.

 

SON

Imagine how much wrath you would have felt if I had eaten my waffle and yours too since you have to pay for them. I guess if you had cooked them, you would feel even more injustice. 

DAD

(Thoughtfully.)

Yeah. I think personal experiences of injustice help people get a SMALL TASTE of God’s outrage.

(Laughing.)

You might get confused about what the right thing to do is when it comes to treating someone else justly. Our self-centered sin nature blinds us so that we act, at least partly, out of selfishness or pride. But most people know when someone has wronged THEM. You KNOW when YOU have been treated unjustly.

SON

You definitely got a small taste of my waffle.

DAD 

(Smiling.)

Yeah. I liked the way you had the syrup drizzled so perfectly on it. Seriously thought, push the thought of God’s complete justice a little further. If God did not require complete justice, he would be unjust. Right?

SON

Right.

DAD

If God were unjust, he would also not be holy, good, or loving. Bottom line, if God did what is wrong by allowing any crumb of injustice or by acting unjustly himself, God would not be himself. And if God is not the God he claims to be, we are all in big trouble. How would you like to be under the rule of an all-powerful, all-knowing, unjust, corrupted, God?

SON

Yeah. That would be pretty scary.

DAD

Yeah! That would be scary, and that is why God can’t just forgive.

SON

Got ya. So back to the cross? Jesus was innocent. It seems like God treated him unjustly. How can injustice to one person result in justice for others?

(Spotlight shifts to two seminary students sitting before empty plate cluttered with sticky napkins that have been pushed aside; Seminary Student 2 rises and chooses a song from the jukebox and returns to table; Seminary Student 1 focuses attention on vocabulary section of theology book; as “Before the Throne” begins to play softly in background. 

SEMINARY STUDENT 1

(With an insistent, “lets wrap this up” tone.)

Okay. Let’s go through this one last time. I have to get some sleep. Atonement?

SEMINARY STUDENT 2

The work of Christ that made full amends to God for our sin. This work includes Christ’s entire life of obedience that culminated in his death on the cross.

SEMINARY STUDENT 1

(Giving thumbs up.)

Because of the atonement our sins are expiated; God is propitiated; and we are reconciled, justified, and saved.

SEMINARY STUDENT 2

What’s that? A preview?

SEMINARY STUDENTS 1

You know it.

(Spotlight shifts to wife and husband sharing a Waffle Café meal as woman nervously reciting the gospel presentation she had been asked to prepare for presentation at her church.)

WIFE

I’m really nervous about doing this in front of all those people at church.

HUSBAND

You’ll do fine. Just be yourself. Go for it. 

(In a playfully commanding voice.)

Give them the unavoidable truth. Rip all falsehoods and fabrications to shreds! Throw fiction to the floor and stomp on it!

WIFE

(Laughing.)

Yeah. Right. Sincerely, thanks for letting me practice on you. Okay. Ready? Here goes.

(Clears throat. Shifts to presentation voice.)

About 2000 years ago there were two thieves hanging on a cross outside Jerusalem. Between them, hung an innocent man. Over this middleman hung a sign that identified him as a king. The Gospels of Mark and Matthew, tell us that both thieves were making fun of the middleman, but we learn from the Gospel of Luke, that something must have happened in the heart of one of the thieves because his attitude suddenly changed. 

(Spotlight shifts back to seminary students who are still engaged in test review.)

SEMINARY STUDENT 1

Conversion?

SEMINARY STUDENT 2

Repentance of sins and a willing response of faith in Christ as the only means of salvation. Repentance and saving faith are gifts of God.

(Spotlight shifts back to Husband and Wife.)

WIFE

(Continues in presentation voice.)

Even today, this eye-opening, heart-changing event still happens. People suddenly see God for who he is and they see themselves for who they are. And when they do, what they once believed, what once seemed so rational, what once seemed so valuable, stops satisfying them.

(Pointing to self.)

It happened to me. I was going my own way, swimming along in my own rationalizations, in a fiction that I had made up, in a fiction, that, now that I think of it, did not make sense, when God did something in my heart. God changed me. He regenerated me; he gave me new life with new eyes to see that the middleman, the God-man who stood between me and God, was the only way to God. He gave me faith to believe that Jesus was the only Savior, the only way I would ever be able to stand before God, the only way I would be able to have peace and relationship with him. I saw that Jesus was God. God gave me eyes to see that I really am deplorable and granted me repentance. I was converted. Conversion, faith, and repentance,

(pointing to self)

happened to me and,

(Pointing to husband.)

if you are a true believer, it has happened to you.

(Resuming conversational voice.)

Let me say that much again.

(Spotlight shifts back to seminary students.)

SEMINARY STUDENT 1

(Smiling.)

Expiation?

SEMINARY STUDENT 2

The removal of sin that was possible because Jesus sacrificially bore God’s wrath against sin.

SEMINARY STUDENT 1

Explain.

SEMINARY STUDENT 2

Because Jesus paid the penalty for sin, sin is removed from the sinner who is united to Christ. In other words, because sin is expiated, the offense of sin is removed, and, so, God’s wrath, because of the offense of sin, is removed. 

SEMINARY STUDENT 1

Don’t forget to add that expiation makes forgiveness possible. Because forgiveness is possible, reconciliation, between God and sinners is possible. Justification?

SEMINARY STUDENT 2

Justification is a legal declaration.

SEMINARY STUDENT 1

(Singing.)

Tell me more. Tell me more.

SEMINARY STUDENT 2

God declares that a person’s sin is forgiven, that Christ’s righteousness,

(Quickly summarizing.)

the Son’s perfect obedience to the Father,

(Continues in regular cadence.)

belongs to a person, and that God considers the unrighteous person righteous. It is an event that happens the moment a sinner is united to Christ by faith. At the moment of that union, God declares the sinner to be righteous. Justification is the result of the GREAT EXCHANGE that happened on the cross – our sin exchanged for Jesus’ righteousness.

SEMINARY STUDENT 1

(Nodding affirmably.)

Maybe you should add that justification does not mean that you never sin again … w-h-i-c-h would lead to a discussion of sanctification – so never mind.

SEMINARY STUDENT 1

Penal Substitution?

SEMINARY STUDENT 2

Penal substitution is a way to explain that on the cross, Jesus hung in the place of sinners; In God’s eyes, he became the bearer of sins. You could say he became the sinner. So, he was found guilty by God, he was cursed by God, he was forsaken by God, and he was crushed to death by God’s wrath. As the substitute sinner, he paid the penalty of sin in the sinners’ place for all those who are, or will one day be, united to him by faith. 

SEMINARY STUDENT 1

Which leads us to … Penalty for sin?

SEMINARY STUDENT 2

The penalty for sin is death. … By “death” you know I mean a death that includes separation from God. And, by “separation” I mean that God abandons the sinner.

SEMINARY STUDENT 1

(Rubbing and stretching eyes.)

Propitiate? 

SEMINARY STUDENT 2

That’s an action that affects God’s attitude toward sinners. Jesus’ death appeased – you know, satisfied, relieved, placated God’s just wrath toward sin. His death removed the wrath of God from the objects of God’s wrath and placed God’s former enemies in a favorable position with God. 

SEMINARY STUDENT 1

So then, a propitiation is?

SEMINARY STUDENT 2

a noun.

SEMINARY STUDENT 1

Ha ha. I don’t think that will work on the test.

SEMINARY STUDENT 2

A propitiation is the sacrifice that bears the wrath of God against another, on behalf of the other, with the result that God becomes favorable toward the other. Specifically our propitiation is Jesus. More specifically it is the sacrifice of Jesus on the cross. Jesus was the only worthy, perfect, and sufficient sacrifice that could satisfy God’s divine justice and relieve God’s wrath. His sacrifice of himself was the only thing that could change God’s attitude toward guilty sinners from wrathful to merciful. 

(Spotlight shifts back to Dad and Son.)

DAD

At the moment when I repented and believed that Jesus was the only way I could be saved from God’s wrath and have peace with God, I was united to the God-man who hung between God and me. At that moment, God forgave me and declared me to be right in  his sight – to be justified. God could do this, because Jesus had taken God’s wrath for my sin. He fully satisfied God’s wrath again my sin. He paid my sin debt so that God could look on me with the favor of a friend instead of with the fury of an enemy. And that’s the answer to your question about the cross. The cross is where God’s perfect justice and abundant mercy meet. The cross is the way that God can save sinners and remain righteous.

(Spotlight shifts back to Husband and Wife.)

WIFE

(Shifts back to presentation voice.)

Because, God now counts my sin to be completely punished and Jesus’ righteousness to be mine, I can be forgiven. I can have peace with God – I can be reconciled to God

(Points to self.)

and so can you.

(Points to Husband.)

Through faith, by believing, by totally relying on the truth that Jesus is God and is the only way to God, I am united to Christ. Through faith, all believers are united to Christ. They are counted by God as righteous, and are reconciled to God.

(Spotlight shifts back to seminary students.)

SEMINARY STUDENT 1

So this is moment when you can tell me about reconciliation.

SEMINARY STUDENT 2

Reconciliation is the re-establishment of a positive relationship that had been severed.

SEMINARY STUDENT 1

Redemption?

SEMINARY STUDENT 2

A way of thinking about what Jesus did for us on the Cross.

SEMINARY STUDENT 1

I think you’re going to have to say a little more?

SEMINARY STUDENT 2

I’m claiming brain death.

SEMINARY STUDENT 1

Okay. I’ll get you started. Redemption is a way of talking about salvation. Christ’s saving work is thought of as the payment of a ransom …

SEMINARY STUDENT 2

that releases sinners from the grip of sin and Satan. Our sin is Satan’s bargaining tool with God. He uses our guilt as proof against us – as the basis for why God should justly condemn us. He uses it to call God’s justice into question when God doesn’t condemn and execute us. When Jesus took our sin upon himself and paid the penalty for our sin, God’s justice was satisfied and we were released from the accusation of Satan. Once the penalty for sin had been served and satisfied, God could remain just while justifying sinners.

SEMINARY STUDENT 1

Okay. Next one. Regeneration (born again)?

SEMINARY STUDENT 2

An act of God in which he imparts new spiritual life to sinners.

SEMINARY STUDENT 1

Compared to … Resurrection?

SEMINARY STUDENT 2

Resurrection is an event in which a person rises from the dead. The promise for believers is that they will have a body like Jesus’ resurrected body – a body that can be recognized but a body that cannot be impacted by sin and its consequences. You know, by sickness, aging, deterioration, or death.

(Spotlight shifts back to Wife and Husband.)

WIFE

(Takes nervous breath and looks into Husband’s eyes as he nods affirming.)

On that long-ago Friday, Jesus bore my sin and died the death I should have died. This death was more than a physical death. It was a death that included separation from God’s favor. On the following Sunday, Jesus rose from the grave. Through his resurrection, God the Father vindicated his son. Jesus’ resurrection showed that his saving work was acceptable to God. It showed that his suffering, and his death satisfied God’s justice. It showed that Jesus had completely paid for the sin of those united to Christ through their faith that Jesus is the only one who can save them from God’s wrath. The resurrection was God’s seal of approval. Jesus now sits at the right hand of God where he reigns over all things. He is right now Lord of all. That thief, who saw Jesus as the Savior that is he is, is right now, this very moment, in God’s presence.

WIFE

(Continues more confidently.)

One day, Jesus will return and that thief’s body, along with the unrepentant thief’s body and the bodies of all those who have died, will rise from the dead. The bodies of those who are united to Christ by faith, the living and the dead, will be changed. Their bodies will become imperishable and eternal, unable to ever be corrupted by the effects of sin.

(Spotlight shifts back to seminary students.)

SEMINARY STUDENT 1

Salvation?

SEMINARY STUDENT 2 

The state of being rescued from God’s wrath.

SEMINARY STUDENT 1

Saving Faith?

SEMINARY STUDENT 2

Saving faith is a gift of God. It is the faith that allows a person to believe and fully trust that Jesus’ is the only means of gaining peace and eternal life with God.

SEMINARY STUDENT 1

Sin?

SEMINARY STUDENT 2

Passively speaking, sin is basically a failure to image God’s moral character and actions (thoughts, attitudes, deeds). Actively speaking, sins are acts that are contrary to God’s moral law. Sin is rebellion. You see sin at work in rebellious attitudes and actions toward God. It is a partial or complete disregard for God’s moral law. At its core, sin comes from unbelief that God is who he says he is and will do what he says he will do.

SEMINARY STUDENT 1

Last one. Da da da daaaaa … Union with Christ?

SEMINARY STUDENT 2

A way of describing the real relationship that exists between believers and Christ. In this relationship believers, who trust, those who have faith receive all the benefits of salvation.

SEMINARY STUDENT 1

Union with Christ is also known as …

SEMINARY STUDENT 2

(Signaling quotations with fingers.)

“in Christ,” “Christ in you,” “like Christ,” and “with Christ.” The thing that unites a believer to Christ is faith – belief that Jesus is the only one who can save you from God’s wrath – belief that Jesus is the only Savior.

WIFE

(Spotlight shifts to Wife and Husband. Wife’s speech speeds with confident excitement.)

One day, our righteous God will judge all people. Believers united to Christ will receive God as their great reward. Heaven and earth will merge and there will be a new city where God dwells with his people – a new heaven and a magnificent new earth – an earth no longer affected by the curse of sin. God’s presence on the new earth will shine so brightly that there will be no need for the sun. God’s people will be able to enjoy God forever. They will be able to spontaneously respond perfectly and authentically in worship to God’s unending beauty. A world that once seemed strange and odd and only thought of as real by a few, will be unmistakably visible and real to all.

WIFE

This is the gospel unfolded! … unfolded a bit?

(Pointing to self.)

This is the good news for me and … this is the good news for you.

(Pointing to husband.) 

WIFE

Was that okay?

HUSBAND

Well I think you have to face the fact that what you said, will sound odd and unbelievably fantastic to some people. You know that. You will sound like a crazy woman to them. But to those who have experienced salvation, to them, the strangeness will be wondrously true.

(Lights fade and curtain closes.)

UNSEEN VOICE

This is an all-night café. So if you want to talk some more, hang out and join the conversation.

 


REFERENCES

Mark 15: 27-39

Matthew 27: 37-50

Luke 23: 32-47

Berkhof, Louis, Systematic Theology: New Combined Ed., “Entry for Atonement,” William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.: Grand Rapids, MI, 1996.

Grudem, Wayne, Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Biblical Doctrine, “Glossary”, Zondervan: Grand Rapids, MI, 1994.

Owen, John, The Death of Death in the Death of Christ: A treatise in Which the Whole Controversy about Universal Redemption is Fully Discussed, Sections associated with the concept of “atonement,” (Public Domain). 

Ware, Bruce A., Big Truths for Young Hearts: Teaching and Learning the Greatness of God, Chapters 4, 6, Crossway Books, Wheaton, IL, 2009.

Washer, Paul, The Gospel’s Power and Message, Various pages that reference “Atonement,” “Propitiation,” “Expiation,” Reformation Heritage Books, Grand Rapids, MI, 2012.


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